Diabetes – Causes, Types, Symptoms and Treatment

Diabetes is a disease that is quite common in the public’s ears. Not a few of them say that the cause of diabetes is consuming too much sugar. However, is that true? Just look at the answer in the review below.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a metabolic disease that occurs when there are high levels of sugar in the body, but the body cannot use it optimally. Diabetes is a condition that is included in the category of dangerous chronic diseases, especially if complications occur.

Causes of Diabetes

Blood sugar is an important component in the body as a source of energy so that the body functions optimally during activities. The amount of sugar intake must be adjusted to our daily activities.


However, the problem is when the body gets sugar intake, while our physical activity is very limited. This condition can cause a buildup of blood sugar. In the long term, the buildup of blood sugar in the body will increase the risk of diabetes.


There are several causes that result in the body failing to burn the sugar in the body optimally, including:

  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Too high sugar intake.
  • Disruption of the body’s response to insulin.
  • Reduced insulin production by the pancreas.
  • Insulin performance is hampered due to the presence of other hormones.

Insulin itself is a hormone produced by the body to help maximize the absorption of glucose or sugar into the body’s cells, which is then processed into an energy source and the excess will be stored as energy reserves.

Types of Diabetes

Research published in Introduction to Diabetes Mellitus divides diabetes into three types, namely:

1. Type 1 Diabetes

Basically, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder, namely a condition where antibodies that should work to protect the body against infection, instead turn against the body’s own cells.

In the case of type 1 diabetes, what is damaged is the beta cells in the pancreas. This process damages the beta cells that produce insulin. It is not yet known what causes antibodies to attack pancreatic beta cells. However, many experts believe that genetic factors and certain viral infections are the cause.

2. Type 2 Diabetes

In contrast to the cause of type 1 diabetes which is the result of a decrease in insulin production, in type 2 diabetes insulin production runs normally. However, the body’s sensitivity in responding to blood sugar levels decreases so that its use is not optimal.


Generally, this condition occurs more often in adults, especially those over 30 years old. Lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity, stress, and consumption of foods high in sugar, play an important role in the formation of this disease. Apart from that, genetic factors and obesity, which are not handled properly, are quite influential in increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes.

3. Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is diabetes which is generally temporary. This disease will attack pregnant women and will usually heal itself after giving birth.


Although it can occur at any time, this disease usually begins to attack in the 24th week of pregnancy. Even though it can heal on its own, that doesn’t mean gestational diabetes is not dangerous. If not treated properly, this disease can increase the risk of the baby being born with excess weight, being born prematurely, or being born with low blood sugar or hypoglycemia.


For pregnant women, gestational diabetes has the potential to cause complications, such as preeclampsia and hypertension. In addition, the mother is also at risk of developing gestational diabetes in subsequent pregnancies, which can increase the potential for developing type 2 diabetes after giving birth.

Diabetes Diagnosis and Symptoms

Diabetes is a disease that appears accompanied by symptoms. Although sometimes it is only known after checking your blood sugar levels, if you are sensitive, signs of excess blood sugar can be seen from the following conditions.

  • Often feel tired even though you don’t do physical activity
  • Often feel thirsty even though you have drunk enough water.
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • Often attacked by extreme hunger.
  • Old or difficult to heal wounds.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Frequent urination.

Frequent infections, including those of the skin, gums and intimate organs.

In patients, the symptoms of diabetes will progress quite quickly so that you can feel extreme changes in the body. If you see these signs, immediately visit a doctor for examination and medical treatment.


Usually the doctor will carry out several examinations, including a blood sugar level test. You can be said to have diabetes if:

Blood sugar levels reach more than 200 mg/dL, accompanied by the appearance of several symptoms, such as frequent thirst, frequent urination, frequent hunger, wounds that are difficult or take a long time to heal, and others.

Fasting blood sugar levels reach more than 126 mg/dL. Fasting blood sugar levels are when a check is carried out and you do not get calorie intake for at least 8 hours.

Blood sugar levels reached more than 200 mg/dL after an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). This test is a blood sugar level check when you have a sugar intake of around 75 grams.

Even though there are currently many independent blood sugar testing tools, to find out whether you have diabetes or not, an examination by a doctor is the best step. This is because the self-test tool only functions to monitor blood sugar levels.

Diabetes Treatment

  • Diabetes treatment generally takes a long time and requires patience. You are required to be disciplined in carrying out the 5 pillars of diabetes treatment which include education, diet management, exercise, medication consumption, and independent blood sugar monitoring.
  • Consuming herbal medicines to increase insulin production and reduce blood sugar levels should be done with the permission and supervision of a doctor. The reason is, consuming medical drugs together with herbal medicines can risk causing hypoglycemia or an extreme drop in blood sugar levels.
  • Apart from that, there are several herbal medicines which, if consumed long term and in excessive amounts, can cause bad effects on health, including the risk of damaging the liver and kidneys.

For those of you who want to check your blood sugar as an effort to prevent diabetes, Siloam Hospitals also has a Medical Check Up – Diabetes Screening package that you can choose according to your needs. Don’t hesitate to consult with the nearest Siloam Hospital doctor to obtain a proper diagnosis and medical treatment.


You can use the Find a Doctor feature to find doctor schedules, book, and make appointments with related doctors. Or, also use the MySiloam application to make it easier for you to consult directly with a doctor online. Let’s download the MySiloam application and trust your and your family’s health #WithSiloam!




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