COVID-19

COVID-19

Corona virus or  severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2  (SARS-CoV-2) is a virus that attacks the respiratory system. The disease caused by this viral infection is called COVID-19. The Corona virus can cause mild problems with the respiratory system, serious lung infections, and even death.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2  (SARS-CoV-2) or better known as the Corona virus is a new type of Coronavirus that is transmitted to humans. This virus can attack anyone, from the elderly , adults,  children and babies , to pregnant women and  breastfeeding mothers .

The Corona virus infection called COVID-19 ( Corona Virus Disease 2019 ) was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, China at the end of December 2019. This virus spread very quickly and spread to almost all countries, including Indonesia, in just a few months.

This has led several countries to implement  lockdown policies to prevent the Corona virus from spreading further. In Indonesia, the government implemented the Community Activity Restrictions (PPKM) policy to suppress the spread of this virus.

In Indonesia, the government implemented the Community Activity Restrictions (PPKM) policy to suppress the spread of this virus. However, currently the PPKM policy has been relaxed to PPKM level 1 in a number of areas, for example DKI Jakarta, Banten and West Java.

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that infect the respiratory system. In many cases, this virus causes only a mild respiratory infection,  such as the flu . However, this virus can also cause serious respiratory infections, such as lung infections (pneumonia).

Apart from the SARS-CoV-2 virus or Corona virus,  viruses included in the Coronavirus group are the virus that causes  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  ( SARS ) and the virus that causes  Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome  ( MERS ).

Even though it is caused by a virus from the same group, namely Coronavirus , COVID-19 has several  differences from SARS and MERS , including in terms of the speed of spread and severity of symptoms.

Death Rate Due to Corona Virus (COVID-19)

According to data released by the Task Force for the Acceleration of Handling COVID-19, the number of positive confirmed cases as of June 21 2022 is 6,069,255 people, with a death toll of 156,695 people.

From these figures, it is known that the case fatality rate due to COVID-19 is around 2.6%. This number decreased from 3.4% in January 2022.

Even though the number of deaths due to COVID-19 is relatively high, the recovery rate from COVID-19 also continues to increase. The latest data shows that the number of survivors or people who have been infected with the Corona virus and then recovered is 5,903,461 people.

Symptoms of Corona Virus (COVID-19)

The initial symptoms  of Corona virus infection or COVID-19 can resemble flu symptoms, namely fever, runny nose, dry cough,  sore throat and headache. After that, the symptoms may disappear and heal or even get worse.

COVID-19 sufferers with severe symptoms may experience high fever, cough with phlegm or even blood, shortness of breath, or chest pain. These complaints arise when  the body reacts against the Corona virus .

In general, there are three general symptoms that can indicate someone is infected with the Corona virus, namely:

  • ever  (body temperature above 38 degrees Celsius)
  • Dry cough
  • Hard to breathe

There are several other symptoms that can also appear in Corona virus infection, although they are less common, namely:

  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Loss of the ability to taste
  • Loss of the ability to smell ( anosmia )
  • Rash on the skin

The symptoms of COVID-19 generally appear within 2 days to 2 weeks after the sufferer is exposed to the Corona virus. Some patients infected with the Corona virus can experience a decrease in oxygen without any symptoms. This condition is called happy hypoxia .

To determine whether these symptoms are symptoms of the Corona virus, a rapid test or PCR is needed . To find a place to do a rapid test or PCR near your home, click here .

When to see a doctor

Immediately carry out  self-isolation  if you experience symptoms of Corona virus infection (COVID-19) as mentioned above, especially if in the last 2 weeks you have been in an area that has had COVID-19 cases or been in contact with someone suffering from COVID-19. After that, call  the COVID-19 hotline  at 119 Ext. 9 for further guidance.

If you suspect you have been exposed to the Corona virus but do not experience any symptoms or only have mild symptoms, there is no need  to go to hospital . You just need to self-isolate at home for 10 days from the appearance of symptoms, plus 3 days free of symptoms of fever and respiratory problems.

If symptoms appear, then self-isolate and ask the doctor via telephone or application about the actions that need to be taken and the medicines that need to be taken.

If you need a direct examination by a doctor, do not go straight to the hospital, because your risk of contracting or transmitting the Corona virus to other people will increase. You can  make a consultation appointment  with a doctor at the hospital via the ALODOKTER application so you can be directed to the nearest doctor who can help you.

ALODOKTER also has a feature to help you check the risk of contracting the Corona virus more easily. To use this feature, please click on the image below.

Causes of Corona Virus  (COVID-19)

Corona virus infection or COVID-19 is caused by Coronavirus , a group of viruses that infect the respiratory system.

In most cases, Coronavirus only causes mild to moderate respiratory infections, such as the flu . However, this virus can also cause severe respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, MERS ( Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome ) and SARS ( Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ).

There are allegations that the Corona virus was originally transmitted from animals to humans. However, it was later discovered that the Corona virus was also transmitted from human to human.

A person can contract COVID-19 in various ways, namely:

  • Accidentally inhaling droplets that come out when a COVID-19 sufferer coughs or sneezes
  • Holding your mouth or nose without washing your hands first after touching objects that have been exposed to droplets from COVID-19 sufferers, for example money , doorknobs, or table surfaces
  • Having close contact with people suffering from COVID-19

However, please note that until now there has been no data showing that there is transmission of the corona virus through shopping goods . If you are in doubt, make sure to spray antiseptic on shopping goods, especially those from abroad.

The Corona virus can infect anyone, but  the effects  will be more dangerous or even fatal if it occurs in elderly people,  pregnant women , people who have  certain diseases ,  smokers , or people whose immune system is weak, for example cancer sufferers .

Because it is easily transmitted, the Corona virus also has a high risk of infecting medical personnel who treat COVID-19 patients. Therefore, medical personnel and people who frequently come into contact with COVID-19 patients need to use personal protective equipment (PPE) .

Based on data released by WHO, there are several variants of SARS-CoV-2 that cause COVID-19. The following are the types of variants:

  • The Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) was first discovered in the UK in September 2020.
  • The Beta variant (B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3) was first discovered in South Africa in May 2020.
  • The Gamma variant (P.1/P.1.1/P.1.2) was first discovered in Brazil in November 2020.
  • The Delta variant (B.1.617.2/AY.1/AY.2/AY.3) was first discovered in India in October 2020.
  • The Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was first discovered in several countries in November 2021.

The Omicron variant is the main variant of the corona virus which is currently spreading widely. This variant consists of several subvariants, namely BA.1, BA. 1.1, BA.2, and BA.3.

The Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 variants are the newest subvariants that were only detected in Indonesia in June 2022. These subvariants have the possibility of faster transmission than other Omicron subvariants.

Corona Virus  (COVID-19) Diagnosis

To determine whether a patient is infected with the Corona virus, the doctor will ask about the symptoms the patient is experiencing. The doctor will also ask whether the patient lives in an area or has recently traveled to an area that has many cases of COVID-19, as well as whether the patient had contact with sufferers or people suspected of being infected with the Corona virus before symptoms appeared.

Next, to confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will carry out the following examinations:

  • Rapid test , to detect antibodies (IgM and IgG) produced by the body to fight the Corona virus
  • Rapid antigen test , to detect antigen, namely the protein on the outer part of the virus
  • Swab test  or  PCR ( polymerase chain reaction ) test , to detect the Corona virus in the lining of the nose
  • CT scan  or chest X-ray, to detect infiltrates or fluid in the lungs
  • Complete blood test , to check the levels of white blood cells and C-reactive protein

A positive COVID-19 rapid test  result  most likely indicates that you have indeed been infected with the Corona virus, but it could also mean that you are infected with another germ or virus. On the other hand, a  negative COVID-19 rapid test result  does not necessarily indicate that you are absolutely free from the Corona virus.

Corona Virus  (COVID-19) Treatment

For patients with mild or no symptoms, the doctor will recommend self-isolation at home while still taking steps to prevent the spread of Corona virus infection. Some actions that a doctor can take are:

  • Prescribe  fever and pain relievers  that are safe and appropriate to the patient’s condition
  • Encourage patients to self-isolate and  get enough rest
  • Encourage patients to drink lots of water to maintain body fluid levels

Antibiotics are not effective in fighting any viral infections. Therefore, the use of antibiotics to prevent or treat Corona virus infections is not recommended.

Meanwhile, for patients with severe symptoms, the doctor will provide a referral to undergo quarantine at a referral hospital. Treatment methods that can be given include:

  • Giving intravenous fluids to stay hydrated
  • Installation of a ventilator or breathing apparatus
  • Administering medications, such as anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs to prevent blood clots

Several types of antivirals, namely favipiravir , molnupiravir , and remdesivir, have been studied to fight the corona virus. However, to date, research results show that antiviral drugs are not effective in treating COVID-19 and are not effective in reducing death rates.

Complications of Corona Virus  (COVID-19)

In severe cases, Corona virus infection can cause the following complications:

  • Pneumonia  (lung infection)
  • Secondary infections in other organs
  • Kidney failure
  • Acute cardiac injury
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Death

Apart from that, there is also the term long haul COVID-19. This term refers to someone who has been declared cured through a negative PCR test result, but still experiences complaints, such as weakness, coughing, joint pain, chest pain, difficulty concentrating, palpitations, or intermittent fever.

Prevention of Corona Virus  (COVID-19)

Currently, Indonesia is implementing the COVID-19 vaccination program in stages. As of June 2022, data shows that 96.6% of the population has received the first dose of vaccine and around 80.91% has received the second dose of vaccine. Additionally, 23.59% of the population has received the booster vaccine .

The COVID-19 vaccination aims to build the body’s immunity against the Corona virus. Apart from that, vaccination also aims to establish group immunity or herd immunity . That way, people who cannot undergo the vaccine because they have certain conditions, such as a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine, can be protected.

To achieve the above goals, the COVID-19 vaccine can now be given to children aged 6–18 years, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. Meanwhile, for people who have a history of illness or suffer from certain conditions, vaccination can be done, but must have permission from a doctor.

  • Vaccination is the best way to prevent COVID-19. However, you also still have to avoid factors that can cause you to be infected with the Corona virus, namely:
  • Apply physical distancing , namely maintaining a distance of at least 1 meter from other people, and don’t leave the house unless there is an urgent need.
  • Use a mask when doing activities in public or crowded places, including when going grocery shopping or attending religious services on holidays.
  • Wash your hands regularly with water and soap or hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol, especially after activities outside the home or in public places.
  • Don’t touch your eyes, mouth and nose before washing your hands.
    Increase your body’s endurance by living a healthy lifestyle, such as eating nutritious food, exercising regularly, getting enough rest, and preventing stress.
  • Avoid contact with people with COVID-19, people who are suspected of being positively infected with the Corona virus, or people who have a fever, cough or cold.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Keep the environment clean and clean at home , including objects that are frequently touched.

For people suspected of having  COVID-19  (including the suspect and probable categories ), previously referred to as ODP (person under monitoring) or PDP (patient under supervision), there are several steps that can be taken to avoid transmitting the Corona virus to other people, namely:

  • Carry out  self-isolation  by staying apart from other people for a while. If this is not possible, use a different bedroom and bathroom from those used by other people.
  • Don’t leave the house, except to get treatment.
  • Contact the hospital to pick you up if your symptoms get worse.
  • Forbid other people from visiting or visiting you until you are completely healed.
  • As much as possible, do not meet with people who are sick.
  • Avoid sharing eating and drinking utensils, toiletries and sleeping equipment with other people.
  • Wear a mask and gloves when you are in a public place or with other people.
  • Use a tissue to cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, then immediately throw the tissue in the trash.

Please note, conditions that need to be handled directly by doctors at the hospital, such as childbirth , surgery , dialysis, or  child vaccinations , will be carried out with several adjustments during the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal is so that you do not contract the Corona virus while in hospital.

Therefore, consult a doctor about the best actions that need to be taken if you experience the conditions above.

If you want to get more information about the symptoms, prevention and treatment of Corona virus infection, please download the ALODOKTER application on Google Play or the App Store . Through the ALODOKTER application, you can also chat directly with a doctor and make a consultation appointment with a doctor at the hospital.

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